Recall from syllabus that all essays must use the opening paragraph that I have written.
All countries have bases of conflict. The conflicts often reflect divisions (cleavages) over religious, economic and ideological differences. France has known its share of social and political divisions. The French revolution of 1789 divided the country sharply across ideological lines. Also, conflicts between church and state, social class, generational and regional differences have been central to French politics. More recently, immigration has emerged as a base of conflict in French society and politics. In the following two paragraphs, the objective of this short is to describe some aspects of immigration as a new conflict for France.
Paragraph 1. organizational pointers (do not include in your essay paragraph)
Who are the immigrants?
When did the new wave arrive?
What is the nature of the conflict (religion, ethnicity)?
Illustrations of conflict
There are two key things that I have learned about immigration as a source of conflict in contemporary France. First….. Second ……
To prepare, begin with the material in the textbook. However, even for a short essay, this is not enough. You may google and search for relevant information (stylized facts). You may also peruse Wikipedia for more background information. These three, the textbook, Google, and Wikipedia, are not, however, sources in themselves but resources which point you to the authoritative sources.
Thus, do not cite them in the essay or you will be penalized in the grading. For this assignment, you have been provided with four sources here and two more earlier this week (the Economist and the Walton articles) which you should draw upon. You need to incorporate and cite only one of them.
Also, the questions above paragraphs 3 and 4 should not be part of your essay. Moreover, do not respond to them as if they are essay questions. They are there to give you a guide as to the type of substantive information we expect in those paragraphs.
If the questions are placed in your essay and/or your paragraphs read like blue book responses to them, you will be penalized. We will take it as an indication of non-attentiveness and a lack of an effort to write a college level short analytical essay.
Two pages double-spaced with a least one source (reference) cited. You cannot use your textbook as the source (reference) in the paper. If you so so, points will be taken away from the essay.
References Should Look Like This:
If you place them in the text, they should be incorporated in this way. According to John Smith (1999, p. 3) …. or Increased trade has resulted in …. earning more income from its exports (Bauer, 2003, pp. 20-23). The full citation of the reference – book, article, newspaper source is placed at the end of the paper as a bibliography. For example, John Smith 1999. The Cost of Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Or you can use footnotes. For example, According to John Smith, trade has …. resulted in increased dependency … With the full citation in the footnote at the bottom of the page.
 John Smith 1999. The Cost of Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 3.